So, how does mold appear in our homes?
Conditions for the appearance of mold.
This requires the following 3 conditions:
- The presence of mold spores in the air. As a rule, they are transported by air and get into an apartment or house on people on animals, on products and things.
- Nutrient medium in the form of organic matter: paper, wood, concrete, stone, mud, flowers and peat pots, soil houseplants, etc.
- Favorable microclimate of the room: temperature about +20°C; high humidity (above 70-95%); uneven heating around the perimeter of the room and not properly working or not working ventilation system.
Some types of fungus can appear and multiply rapidly even at 0°C.
I want, a bit will dwell on issues ventilation.
The fact is that if the ventilation system in the room is installed correctly, and works correctly, then the movement of air prevents the appearance of mold on the walls, because the air blows off the spore, and it can not catch on the surface. In the corners of the same, and nooks air movement is absent, or limited, so they often can see mold. In addition, ventilation is necessary to remove excess moisture from the premises, the causes of which may be Pets, houseplants, frequent washing, coolness in rooms with high humidity outside, uneven heating of the premises, etc. Bathroom, shower, toilet, sauna, sink in the kitchen and other places, also emit a certain moisture, which should go somewhere. Especially aggravate the situation plastic Windows that prevent any draft (if they are of course correctly installed).
If mold spores are present on the walls, in anticipation of favorable conditions for growth, but there is not enough moisture, they will not germinate.
So, we can conclude that since the first two reasons we can not influence to prevent the appearance of mold, you should deal with the third reason.
Causes of mold
– Bad ventilation system. We have already talked about this. It would be good to install air conditioning at home, or other systems that are responsible for ventilation in the room. If this is not possible, then you need to ventilate the premises more often.
– Ventilation systems of kitchen, bathroom, toilet. These are rooms in which the humidity is relatively high, and, as a rule, it is very large there, which contributes to the lightning development of mold and other types of fungus. In this case, you need to pay attention to the frequent ventilation of rooms or install a special air conditioning system. For example, some people put in these rooms in the chimneys fans that enhance the extraction of excess moisture, odors, etc.
– State of water supply and sanitation. The first symptom is the presence of moisture occurring along the passage of the pipes. Another signal could be footprints on the wall next to the bathroom, about the height of the edge of the tub. As a rule, accurate draining should help, however, if you find symptoms too late, the fungus has time to spread too quickly, and then we can not avoid repair
– Capillary suction of moisture on the walls of moistened foundations. This is especially common in older buildings due to the lack of waterproofing in them.
– Increased thermal conductivity of the corners and heat loss in the end rooms due to the increased area of the external walls facing the street.
– Freezing of external walls. If in corners and on edges of walls we see a dark RAID, we can be sure that there was a freezing of a wall. In this case, they must be thoroughly dried, and then check the adhesion of the plaster.
– Leaking gutters and gutters. As a rule, this problem is visible only from the outside, in the form of streaks on the plaster. However, if the humidity is high (for example, during the occurrence of heavy rains), drips can also occur from the center. Often this problem is taken for granted until the situation becomes serious. Left unattended leaks will only create a real problem in winter, when the water freezes in the plaster.
– Moisture coming from the ground. Its presence can be seen in the form of streaks at the junction of the walls with the floor of the first floor or basement. In this case, the examination of the state of horizontal insulation of Foundation walls can help. If it is damaged, then you should make its repair, it is desirable that it was done by a specialized company. Before repairs are carried out, the main walls must be thoroughly dried. An additional problem occurs if the floor is also wet, in which case the problem is difficult to avoid if you do not resort to removing the fragment.
Normal for a comfortable human existence, it is humidity in the range of 70% – 80%.